An Analysis of The Moral Values Of Donny Dhirgantoro’s Novel “5 CM”

A.    Background of the Study
People and language can not be separated to get the information because language becomes the prime media of communication. People use language to express their ideas, opinion, feeling and thoughts. Moreover, language as a media of communication can create a literary work, either in spoken or written form. For example, novel, short story, poetry, painting, song, and so on, which are commonly called a literature.

Literature is considered as written experience and imagination of what human have in mind, which has the value of an art work that exposes about ideas and things in a real life. In this case, novel that being analyzed in this thesis is belong to the fiction work, as well as short story, drama, and tales. On the other hand, autobiography, diary, essay, and history are belong to the nonfiction work.

Literature has a beauty value and usually gives a good impression to the reader. It might be most of people use a literary work as a relaxing, to express their feelings, and to get a new inspiration. Beside it, literature have function for a reader such as adding experience in vocabularies, learning about moral massage in a literary work or just for hobby.

According to Frederick (1998: p. 4) literature means: “A vital record of what men have seen in life, what they have experienced of it, what they have thought and felt about those aspects of it which have the most enduring interest from human beings”, it is fundamentally an expression of life through the medium of language. Literature is as a source of information, knowledge, news, and show the truth. By reading a literature, we will discover ourselves and our world, expressing of the fact of art and imagination as a human life manifestation with language as medium and has a positive effect on human life (humanity), writers of literature want to expressing their ideas, felling, emotion or imagination in their mind so reader will feel what the writers feel and in the last side reader can take what is the meaning of it. Literature helps us learn more about human life. Understand how human character and emotion are influenced by natural surrounding. Understand more about a particular of life, like social, culture, politic, education, etc.

Literature will expand people’s mind and sense of life. Literature is important for their life because it does not only give them pleasure but it also gives them the possibilities which they may encounter in their life. It helps language learners to improve their mastery of the target language. By reading a literary work we can know what the writer feel, understand what they want to share, and know the values of content in the literary work. 

On the other hand, the benefit will be obtained by a man during and after appreciating literature. Through literature someone can add his knowledge of vocabulary in a language and about the pattern of the society life. The teachers can utilize the results of reading in classroom teaching. For readers of literary activities may provide special benefits, according to Aminudin (2004: p. 62) mentioned:
  1. Memberikan informasi yang berhubungan dengan pemerolehan  nilai-nilai kehidupan, dan (2) memperkaya pandangan atau wawasan kehidupan sebagai salah satu unsur yang berhubungan dengan pemberian arti maupun peningkatan nilai kehidupan manusia itu sendiri.
  2. Give the information that connect to get values of life, and (2) increase of view and perception’s life as a one of  element that connect to give meaning or increase the human’s value itself)
From statement above, the writer can take conclusion by reading a literary work the reader can get the information about mean and values of human life and also enrich their view or insight into life as one of the elements associated with the provision of meaning and increase the value of human life itself.

Literature can be a good source for readers. However, it clearly depends ultimately on each particular group of readers, their needs, interest, cultural background and language levels. Readers are usually interested in reading some literary works like drama, novel, prose, fiction, poem, short story, etc. The central theme are mostly about life, love and death which are undergone by all of readers participating in the adventure and experiences of the character in the story which really seems alive.

According to Robert Escarpit (2005: p. 3), literature has three contents that most important, there are a writer, a literary work and public or reader. Each of these has different influences. First, a writer can give influences to psychology, moral, and philosophy. Second, a literary work can influence to esthetic, style, and language. The last, public can influence to history side, politic, social, and economy.

Literature consists of values for education. Novel can possibly has moral value for us if we can understand what message conveyed by the story. By reading literary work, such as novel, we will find more information about moral values which plays an important role in our lives. Literary texts have a powerful function in raising moral and ethical concerns in the classroom. By studying literature we are in some sense making ourselves better people; literature is in fact something from which we get moral education.

Novel as one of the literary works certainly contains many aspects that depicted based on the human real life. This aspects commonly concern with emotion, feeling, problems, conflicts, etc. According to Reeve (1785: p. 26) states that:  “A novel is a picture of real manner and of the time in which it was written”. It shows that novel deals with the real life of society. Novel is like a mirror that reflects the condition and situation of the human in real life then illustrated by the author of the novel in a written form. On the other word, the novel is the combination of the real life experience and the imagination of the author. Most of the aspects in the real life of human are presented in the novel that the author conveyed through the novel. Therefore, it means that it can be drawn so many lessons that the author provide for the reader through the novel. One of the lessons that can be acquired from the novel is its moral lesson. 

The general concept of moral is concern with right or wrong. Every action, attitude, responsibility, good conduct, and ethics of human will reflect the moral value. The moral value in society is measured by the standardization of behavior which is considered acceptable and right by most people. In the society, all the behavior that has the result of unpleasant, immoral, harmful, dishonest, or all the untrue that will produce something not correct or people dislike, that are the manner which contradictive to the good moral lesson. The good moral lesson will produced when people behave well in a particular way.

The writer is interested in novel as her literary work because she wants to make the readers realize that there are many problems in life and there are always good ways to overcome them. The writer, in this chapter emphasizes on how the main character follows the moral value to create a good motivation in life. She believes that the reader will enjoy the novel because content of the novel is so simple and using language that commonly used by young people. The readers only enjoy read the novel, understand the story and how the story will give implication for them.

In this chapter, the writer wants to analysis a novel entitled “5 CM” written by Donny Dhirgantoro. The writer chooses this novel because the content of the novel describes about the modern life on the young people that full of moral values and struggle for life to reach out their goal. In addition the content of the story in the novel tells about friendship among five best friend who all of them never give up to get what they want. Based on the reality on above, the writer tries to analyze the moral values that can be implicated in education.