The Stage of Writing Process

Definition of Writing
To write is put down the graphic symbolism of that represent language one understands, so that others can read the graphic symbols if they know the language and the graphic representations. (Robert Lado; 1982: 143).Gelb said that Writing is clearly a system of human intercommunication by means of conventional visible marks.(Gelb, 1969: 12). Writing is the representation or language in a textual medium trough the use of signs or symbols. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/writing)
From three definitions above, the writer concludes that writing is an activity of putting down the graphic symbols understandable, which has function as a way of thought expression.


the stage of writting process
The Stage of Writing Process
Good writing has sharpness, vividness, and clarity. It is also has substance body, or “muscle”. All these qualities come about manageable subject, focus upon it, and portray its concrete details-when the students look closely at something special. There are several ways of looking closely of writing process.

Choosing a topic
A kind of composition which will write must avoid choosing a large topic that one’s would have to write a book to do it.
  1. Choosing the subject. Knowing the subject is the first principle of good writing. It is easy to make general statements. Someone has to know something about the subject which provides the supporting details. General statements are useful to introduce or sum up a number of specific statements, the details, have to be there. To inform the reader about knowing the subject, it can be found in his own experience of others, and from another sources. (Warriner, 1982: 334)
  2. Limit the subject. Once someone found a subject to write about, he must decide whether it is too big to handle in the time and space he has smaller ones. Each topic will, of course, suggest its own limitations. The important thing is to carry on the limiting process until someone has a subject to whom he can add his own special print of view or knowledge within the length of his paper. In general, the scope of the subject determines the length of the treatment, the bigger of subject, and the longer of writing. (Warriner, 1997: 340)
    In practical terms according to Warriner (1997: 341), it means that his shorter composition will be successful only if someone deals with very limited subjects. How do ones limit a subject? There are some possibilities
    a)    Deal with a limited time period
    b)    Deal with a limited place
    c)    Deal with a limited type
    d)    Deal with a limited use
  3. Adopt the subject to the reader. Even if someone has a manageable topic, on terms of length, about which he is fully informed, he still needs to make another adjustment. Someone must adjust the topic and the content to the audience for which he worries. Just an important to know the subject, then, knows his audience, reading level, prior knowledge and attitudes.
    This knowledge of his audience influence more focus in the topic and the content of his essay. This should affect also the way he begins, the number of examples he uses, and the words he selects.
  4. Determine the purpose. Assuming that someone has a workable topic and a good idea of his audience, there is still one more basic decision he must make about the special directions or focus of his paper. The effect one does wish to have on his audience. After limiting the topic, one’s must consider the purpose of his composition. Taking the particular attitude toward his subject will help someone defines that purpose.
    A good writing then is not selected by accident. Someone should decide upon it only after he has settled three important matters. (Warriner, 1977: 344)
    a)    The way in which subject will be limited
    b)    The audience for whom it is intended
    c)    The effect ones desire to produce
Determining the audience, tone, and style
The writer’s opinion is by knowing the purpose of an essay, we can write essay easily for the exact audience with a tone and a style that are well suited.
  1. Identifying the audience. When ones is write, one’s write for an audience, or reader. Address one’s writing to anyone who may be interested in what one have to say. There will be times when ones have to write for a special audience, such as employer or a college admission committee. Keep that audience in mind as ones write. If ones write an essay for onesr local historical society, for example, ones can expect the members to be interested in detail about onesr community, no details about a distant town. (Brown, 1986: 17)
    From the explanation above, the writer can conclude that the audience is very important for the successfulness of writing. It will be more useful if we write an essay for exact audience with the expected purpose of writing.
  2. Selecting the tone. Tone is inseparable from purpose and audience, it is the attitude that a writer convents about a topic and an audience. Audience, purpose, and tone must work together. One may choose from a wide variety of tones; serious, ironic, affectionate, critical, nostalgic, light, humorous, and so on. In every case ones tone must appropriate or ones topic. It is possible, however, to handle a serious topic lightly or humorously if the writing is skill and tasteful. (Brown, 1986: 418). Selecting the tone is very purposeful. We should select the tone that suitable with the topic.
  3. Considering the style. Two people will express the same thought in different ways. That difference is a different of style. Style in writing is the unique way in which each person puts his or her ideas into words. As ones write, one choose particular words, and one put words together in a particular order. Since it is the result of many choices, one can control onesr style by making the choices purposefully.(Brown, 1986: 419). Style in writing is the unique way in putting ideas into words which has the result of many choices purposeful.
Planning the essay
Writing an essay requires careful planning. Ones must think first through ones topic to decide how ones can give the best present to one’s reader. Listing and organizing the ideas. The writer points out from Ann’s opinion (Brown, 1986: 424) that is how to list and organize the ideas.
  1. List the ideas in phrases or in complete sentences
  2. Review the list, eliminate do not relate
  3. Organizer the list. It is divided into : Main ideas and Supporting ideas

Arrange the ideas in a logical order
There are three of the possibilities order, they are:
  1. Chronological Order. When ones use chronological order, ones present details or events in the order in which they occurred. This is the natural organization for a narrative essay.
  2. Spatial Order. When ones use spatial order, ones present detail or subjects in the order in which ones see them – top to bottom, left to right, or back to front. This order is suitable for a descriptive essay.
  3. Order of Importance. When ones use order of importance, ones usually list the least important ideas first and build up to the most important idea first for special emphasis. This order works well for listing the point of an expository or persuasive essay.
  4. Order Methods of Organization. Sometimes ones write an essay in which one’s compare and contrast aspects of a topic or explain the causes or effects of something.
Writing thesis statement
Now write a thesis statement, the sentence in the firs paragraph that states the topic and the purpose of onesr essay. Since the thesis statement is the most important sentence of the essay, its meaning must precise.
A thesis statement serves both of onesr audience and one’s. It helps one’s to focus onesr essay, making it easier to plan. It helps to reader by making the subject and the direction of the essay clear from the outset. When one’s plan an essay, one’s may find that ones need to formulate a preliminary thesis statement early in the prewriting process too guide ones as ones list onesr ideas. One’s may not write the final version of the thesis statement until ones’ are preparing ones outline or until ones are writing onesr introductory paragraph. (Brown, 1986: 426)
From the explanation above, the writer underlines that a thesis statement is the most important sentence of the essay. It is can help the writer and the reader to understanding the aims of writing.
Outlining the essay
After selecting and arranging ideas, prepare an outline, which will be onesr guide for writing onesr essay. An outline shows the sequence of ideas in onesr essay, their importance, and their relation to one another.(Brown, 1986: 427). The writer can conclude that an outline is a guide for writing an essay that shows the sequence of ideas to one another.

Writing the first draft
Once, one’s have planed onesr essay, ones’ are ready to write onesr first draft. One’s should concentrate on putting onesr ideas on paper in the same order in which they are developed in onesr outline. Do not spend along time, now trying to choose just the right word. One’s can make changes in wording when one’s revise onesr draft.(Brown, 1986:    429).
  • Writing the introductory paragraph. The introduction may consist simply of one sentence. The thesis, although stated by itself without some preparation, may strike the reader somewhat like a plunge into cold water. Its approach the subject of the composition and declares what it will be, but the subject is not discussed at that point except in the most general terms. The purpose of the introduction is to prepare the reader for the subject, to engage his interest in if it possible, to explain it if necessary, and then to lead the discussion of it. Organize onesr introduction as follows. (Sullivan, 1984: 151-152)
    -    Write an opening sentence or two to attract the reader’s attention and to focus his interest on the thesis or subject matter of the composition.
    -    If necessary, write a sentence or two, either before the thesis or after it to give background on the subject, to set the limits of the discussion, or to clarify the meaning of the key words to be used.
    -    Write ones thesis sentence.
  • Writing body paragraphs. The body paragraphs are the core of an essay. In there one’s develop the topic that one’s present in the introductory paragraph. Onesr main task is to put together sentences that present the ideas in the outline and make clear to the reader how are related. Sometimes, particularly in a narrative essay, one’s will need to add details. (Brown, 1986: 430-431)
  • Making transitions. In writing the body paragraphs, pay particular attention to the transitional devices that gives coherence to any composition. The first sentence of the second paragraph should follow the thought of the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. In the same way, the opening sentences of succeeding paragraph should be linked with the paragraphs that the follow. The other sentences in a paragraph should also follow one another logically. To make onesr sentences follow smoothly, use transitional devices in the following ways:
    -    Repeat a key word or phrase form the previous paragraph
    -    Use a pronoun to refer to a person or an idea in the previous sentence.-   
    -    Use transitional words and phrase. (Brown, 1986:  433-434)3)    Writing the concluding paragraph
The composition may conclude even more abruptly with the final sentence of the last discussion paragraph, but the suddenness of such an ending can be unsetting. The conclusion performs a similar function, only in reverse. Standing back from the subject, the conclusion indicates what it has been, and although the conclusion may take a final comment on the subject, it contains no further specific discussion of it.
The purpose of the conclusion is to bring the discussion to a close, to summarize the briefly if necessary, to give it point in a culminating statement if possible, and to leave the reader reflective and satisfied. Organize onesr conclusion as follows: (Sullivan, 1984: 151-152)
  1. Make a general statement (a sentence or two) about the subject that will signal for the reader a shift in focus from discussion to conclusion.
  2. Write a sentence or two that summarize or touches on the main points of the discussion.
  3. If possible, end with a culminating sentence or one that gives special emphasis to the discussion.
  4. Revising and finishing the essay. When ones have completed the first draft of an essay, ones must revise it. When ones revise an essay, ones review it and rework it. Revising includes more than correcting spelling and punctuation errors. Ones must look at onesr essay as ones reader would to see whether the main ideas are understandable. Ones also must see whether ones have used the best words and sentences to present onesr ideas. That is, ones must consider both the content and the style of the essay.
If possible, wait a day or two before ones revise onesr essay. When ones reread it then, ones will have a fresh outlook, and it will be easier to be critical of onesr own writing.
1)    Reviewing the content
To make sure that each part of onesr essay what ones want it to say, review the essay or the following points. Use them as a guide to revision.
Strategies:
  • Introductory paragraph. Make sure that ones have clearly established onesr topic and purpose in the thesis statement and that onesr introduction will capture onesr reader’s interest.
  • Body paragraph. Check for coherence. Be sure that ones have developed onesr topic clearly and arranged onesr ideas logically.
  • Concluding paragraph. Review onesr conclusion to make sure that it will leave onesr reader with a full understanding of onesr main idea.
  • Unity. Make sure that throughout the essay ones have developed the idea presented in the thesis statement. Remove sentences that have little or nothing to do with the topic.
  • Completeness. Check to see wether any passages need further details or examples. If necessary, add new material to onesr sentences or write new sentences.
2)    Reviewing the style
After ones have reviewed the content of onesr essay, examine it again for the way in which ones expressed onesr ideas. Check to be sure that the tone of onesr essay is consistently light or serious throughout the essay. Also make sure that ones have maintained one point of view. Finally, as ones reread the essay, review its style, using the following guidelines.
Strategies:
  • Check the length and complexity of onesr sentences. Be alert for sentences to complicate that onesr reader may fail to understand their meaning. Ones can often divide a long sentence into two more effective sentences. Also look for several short sentences close together, ones may want to combine them. Finally, be sure that the length and complexity of onesr sentences are appropriate to onesr topic and onesr purpose.
  • Check the level of diction in onesr writing. Make sure that ones have used a consistent of level of dictions that falls in the range between informal and formal.
  • Examine onesr word choices. Be sure that ones have chosen words with appropriate denotations and connotations. Also be sure that all of onesr words are correct.
3)    Proofreading
Proofreading, reading onesr essay for errors is the final step in revising. One part of proofreading is checking onesr essay for grammar and usage. For example, be sure that onesr composition contains no sentence fragments or run-on sentences.
The rest or proofreading is checking onesr work for correct punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.
4)    Choosing the title
After revising the first draft of onesr essay, select a title for it if ones have not already done so. Onesr title should give an idea of what onesr essay is about, and it should sound interesting. Keep in mind too, that a title should not be so unusual that it sound odd.
5)    Preparing the finished paper
When ones have reviewed onesr essay and made revision ones can prepare the finished paper. As ones copy the paper, keep in mind that nearness and correctness will make a goof impression on onesr reader. Proofread onesr finished paper to correct errors in copy.